Tobacco in Malawi's main export. Before 2002 all tobacco was bought at auction (in Limbe, Kanengo and in Mzuzu) but now, due mainly to traceability concerns, around 75% of Malawian tobacco is contract farmed. 


Leaf merchants (such as Alliance One International, Limbe Leaf, Japan International Tobacco) require seed-to-cigarette surveillance due, partly, to cover litigation risks. 


We are working with Alliance One International in Kasungu District to evaluate the inclusion of wives growing soya within a standard tobacco contract. 


We use a clustered randomised design with 462 households in total: 227 HHs were randomly selected to receive soya and 235 were control households. 


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